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Death rates from cancer in the European Union (EU) are falling faster in men than in women, according to the latest predictions for European cancer deaths in 2017

After a decade of using a novel approach to select patients for laryngeal cancer treatment, researchers are reporting 'exceptional' survival rates nearing 80 percent, even for the most advanced patients.

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Gray et al found that many medical oncologists did not use genomic testing endorsed by guidelines in place in 2012 and 2013 in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer.

The protein VEGF-A, which is involved in the formation of new blood vessels, often predicts poor prognosis when found in primary tumors. But researchers have now revealed that that may not be the case for liver metastasis derived from colorectal cancer.

Fusobacterium nucleatum appears to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis through suppression of the hosts’ immune response to tumor. Evidence also suggests that diet influences intestinal F nucleatum. However, the role of F nucleatum in mediating the relationship between diet and the risk of colorectal cancer is unknown.

Modifying the shape of IRAK-M, a protein that controls inflammation, can significantly reduce the clinical progression of inflammation and colon cancer in pre-clinical animal models.

Among postmenopausal women who were normal weight, those who were metabolically unhealthy had a significantly increased risk for colorectal cancer compared with those who were metabolically healthy, report investigators.

The open-label, phase 3 KESTREL trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02551159) is recruiting participants with recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) to evaluate durvalumab with or without tremelimumab as first-line therapy compared with standard of care.

Treating head and neck cancer patients with a twice-daily radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy could save more lives. By splitting the daily treatment in two portions, a higher and more effective dose can be given to patients, according to new research.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is characterized by a high rate of local invasion and early distant metastasis. Increasing evidence indicates that epigenetic abnormalities play important roles in NPC development. However, the epigenetic mechanisms underlying NPC metastasis remain unclear. Here we investigate aberrantly methylated transcription factors in NPC tissues, and we identify the HOP homeobox HOPX as the most significantly hypermethylated gene. Consistently, we find that HOXP expression is downregulated in NPC tissues and NPC cell lines. Restoring HOPX expression suppresses metastasis and enhances chemosensitivity of NPC cells. These effects are mediated by HOPX-mediated epigenetic silencing of SNAIL transcription through the enhancement of histone H3K9 deacetylation in the SNAIL promoter. Moreover, we find that patients with high methylation levels of HOPX exhibit poor clinical outcomes in both the training and validation cohorts. In summary, HOPX acts as a tumour suppressor via the epigenetic regulation of SNAIL transcription, which provides a novel prognostic biomarker for NPC metastasis and therapeutic target for NPC treatment.

Microarray data is used to screen the genes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Microarray data of OSCC and normal tissues were downloaded from GEO database and analyzed with Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) method. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were then uploaded on DAVID database to process enrichment analysis. Target genes were finally chosen for verification experiment in vitro and in vivo. 78 DEGs were selected from 54676 genes, including 46 up- and 32 down- regulation. GO term showed that these genes were related to epidermal growth (biological processes), extracellular region (cellular components) and cytokines activity (molecular function). Protein network interaction demonstrated that OSCC was closely allied to the five key genes including CXCL10, IFI6, IFI27, ADAMTS2 and COL5A1, which was consistent with the RT-PCR data. High-expressed gene CXCL10 was chosen for further cell experiment, and the results indicated that CXCL10 can promote the proliferation, migration and invasion of normal cells and inhibited the cancer cells after si-RNA transfection. Moreover, it has been proven that CXCL10 was possibly related to the occurrence and development of OSCC. Understanding the regulation of OSCC expression will shed light on the screening of cancer biomarker.

Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of oropharyngeal cancer in elderly patients, the poor representation of this group in clinical trials, and the challenges treating these patients with multimodality therapy, prospective clinical trials specifically focusing on this group should be performed.

Immunologists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have discovered that a protein called NLRC3 plays a central role in inhibiting colon cells from becoming cancerous. The study, led by Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Ph.D., a member of the St. Jude Department of Immunology, appears online today in the journal Nature.

Elderly patients currently account for a significant proportion of patients who are diagnosed with colon cancer (CC), which bring a challenge of dealing with an aging population to medical oncologists1. the US Preventive Services Task Force guidelines have showed that the percentage of colorectal cancer patients aged 75 and older increased from 29% to 40% between 1973 and 2007. With the increasing and large proportion of the elderly CC patients, more attention should be paid for this group of patients. However, many questions regarding to the elder patients, especially for patients aged 80 and older, were still not well defined.

A team of scientists has developed a model system in mice that allows them to look closely at how a protein often mutated in human cancer exerts its tumor-silencing effects. The new findings shed light on how epigenetic processes contribute to gene regulation and the onset of colon cancer.

Seropositivity to HPV E6 and E7 proteins may be a useful alternative or adjunct to pathology-based testing for HPV in head and neck cancers, particularly for tumors outside of the oropharynx.

The metabolite D-2-hydroxyglurate (D-2HG) promotes epithelial–mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer cells, leading them to develop features of lower adherence to neighboring cells, increased invasiveness, and greater likelihood of metastatic spread. This finding highlights the value of targeting D-2HG to establish new therapeutic approaches against colorectal cancer.

Inhibiting prostaglandin production slows the progression of premalignant lesions to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), researchers report. Preclinical studies showed that treatment of premalignant lesions with indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) similar to aspirin, increased the presence of immune cells and lessened tumor burden.

Photoimmunotherapy blows up tumors and spares healthy cells, describes a new report. An innovative technique under development has the aim to fight cancer, but it sounds like a Tom Clancy military espionage novel. The work uses photoimmunotherapy, PIT for short, an experimental technique that combines the immune system's ability to target cancer cells precisely with laser energy's ability to destroy those cells.

An ion channel, active within T cells (white blood cells), could be targeted to reduce the growth of head and neck cancers, researchers have discovered.

The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) makes recommendations about the effectiveness of specific preventive care services for patients without obvious related signs or symptoms. It bases its recommendations on the evidence of both the benefits and harms of the service and an assessment of the balance. The USPSTF does not consider the costs of providing a service in this assessment. The USPSTF recognizes that clinical decisions involve more considerations than evidence alone. Clinicians should understand the evidence but individualize decision making to the specific patient or situation. Similarly, the USPSTF notes that policy and coverage decisions involve considerations in addition to the evidence of clinical benefits and harms.

The prognosis of recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell cancer (R/M HNSCC) patients is dismal, as their median overall survival (OS) is approximately six to nine months1. Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) is an immune inhibitory receptor that interacts with two ligands, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2). PD-L1 is widely expressed on antigen-presenting cells and other immune cells (IC) and is upregulated on tumor cells (TC) from a broad range of cancer types, including HNSCC. The PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is a major immune checkpoint that has been implicated in the adaptive immune resistance of HNSCC.

When it comes to cancer-causing viruses like human papillomavirus, or HPV, researchers are continuing to find that infection with one strain may be better than another. In an analysis of survival data for patients with a particular type of head and neck cancer, researchers from the University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center confirmed findings that a particular strain of HPV, a virus linked to a number of cancers, resulted in better overall survival for patients with oropharyngeal cancer than patients with other strains of the virus in their tumors.

Bowel cancer patients treated in hospitals where large amounts of clinical research is taking place are more likely to survive - even if they themselves are not involved in the clinical trials, a study by the University of Leeds has found. Researchers found that more people survived operations in these types of hospitals and patients were also more likely to still be alive when followed up five years afterwards.

A new detection method for tumour recurrence in bowel cancer patients is proving to be twice as effective as regular treatment. Research led by gastroenterologists from Flinders University in South Australia found that a blood test, which targeted tumour-derived DNA, successfully detected recurrence in colorectal (bowel) cancer patients during remission.

Findings from the Colorectal Wellbeing Study indicate that after surgery, many colon cancer survivors experience a lack of affection and emotional and practical support, often resulting in depression and anxiety.

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is important for cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis in many types of cancer. However, the mechanisms involved in EGF-induced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) metastasis remain largely unknown. This study reveals that angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) plays an important role in the regulation of EGF-induced cancer metastasis.

Does the location of colon cancer – left or right side – matter for survival? A new report reviewed medical literature to examine the prognostic role of a primary colon cancer tumor being located on the left vs. right side.

Previous studies on smokeless tobacco use and head and neck cancer (HNC) have found inconsistent and often imprecise estimates, with limited control for cigarette smoking. Using pooled data from 11 US case-control studies (1981-2006) of oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers (6,772 cases and 8,375 controls) in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium, hierarchical logistic regression was applied to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for ever use, frequency of use, and duration of use of snuff and chewing tobacco separately for never and ever cigarette smokers.

Scientists have discovered a fast, noninvasive method that could lead to the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Using ultrasensitive, high-speed technology, the researchers identified a suite of molecules in the feces of mice that signifies the presence of precancerous polyps.

Cancer cells are known to be able to speed up their metabolism, reprogramming it so they can proliferate more quickly. Now, researchers have identified one way that tumors alter their metabolism — fermenting rather than burning up glucose for energy — a finding that may lead to a new way of treating virtually all cancers.

A genome-wide association study of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer was conducted in 6,034 cases and 6,585 controls from Europe, North America and South America. Eight significantly associated loci (P < 5 × 10?8) were detected, seven of which are new for these cancer sites.

Cancer stem cells resist therapy and are a major cause of relapse, long after the bulk of a tumor has been killed. A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute provides the most comprehensive picture to date of head and neck cancer stem cells, identifying genetic pathways that cancer stem cells hijack to promote tumor growth and visualizing the process of "asymmetric division" that allows a stem cell to create tumor tissue cells while retaining its own stem-like profile. The study is the result of seven years of research and innovation, including the development of novel techniques that allowed researchers to identify, harvest, and grow these elusive stem cells into populations large enough to study. This major body of work provides specific targets for the development of new cancer therapeutics.

Scientists have developed an endoscope that uses near-infrared light to spot early warning signs of esophageal -- food pipe -- cancer, according to research published in the Journal of Biomedical Optics today.

When it comes to colon cancer screening, there are more choices than ever before. That's the good news, since colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the U.S., and most people should start screening at age 50. The bad news? It's not easy to figure out which screening technique is likely to be the best choice for you. The latest guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, from June 2016, don't help much because they don't present the options in a hierarchy; they simply provide a menu of options.

The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) recently reported 2015 Uniform Data System (UDS) data shows significant gains in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in the nation’s federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), also called community health centers. The UDS CRC screening rate has climbed two percentage points each year for the past three years. But in 2015, the rate jumped by nearly four points. This increase represents an additional 279,990 FQHC patients were screened for CRC in 2015 as compared to 2014.

A colonoscopy can find and remove cancerous growths in the colon, but it may not provide much cancer prevention benefit after the age of 75, a new study suggests.

In current practice, the choice of which adjuvant therapy to use for colon cancer is determined mainly on the basis of the patient’s TNM stage. Patients with stage III cancers are most commonly considered candidates for a fluoropyrimidine plus oxaliplatin treatment; those with stage II cancers, for a fluoropyrimidine alone or no postsurgical therapy. This standard of care has not changed for more than a decade. With the exception of high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) status (which characterizes a subgroup of 15% to 20% of patients with stage II disease who have excellent prognosis and thus no need for adjuvant therapy), no molecular markers or marker signatures have made relevant inroads into clinical practice.

The association between provider case volume and outcomes has long been suggested in cancer care. A Yale Cancer Center team has completed a review of outcomes for patients with locally advanced squamous cell head and neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and found a distinct association between higher-volume treatment centers and improved overall survival. The findings were presented September 26 at the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) meeting in Boston.

A new study from researchers at Henry Ford Hospital finds an incisionless robotic surgery -- done alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy or radiation -- may offer oropharyngeal cancer patients good outcomes and survival, without significant pain and disfigurement.

Case Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers, a research collaboration which includes University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University, who last year identified new gene mutations unique to colon cancers in African Americans, have found that tumors with these mutations are highly aggressive and more likely to recur and metastasize. These findings partly may explain why African Americans have the highest incidence and death rates of any group for this disease.

Angiogenesis is an important therapeutic target in colorectal carcinoma. The multicentre, randomised, double-blind, phase III RAISE trial assessed the efficacy and safety of ramucirumab versus placebo in combination with second-line FOLFIRI (leucovorin, fluorouracil, and irinotecan) in 1072 metastatic colorectal cancer patients with disease progression during or after first-line therapy with bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, and a fluoropyrimidine.

Edible ginger-derived nano-lipids created from a specific population of ginger nanoparticles show promise for effectively targeting and delivering chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat colon cancer, according to a study by researchers at the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University, the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Wenzhou Medical University and Southwest University in China.

This educational initiative is a collaboration between the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), College of American Pathologists (CAP), and Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP). A new case will be presented each month with discussions led by an expert pathologist and medical oncologist.

The associations of chronic sinusitis with subsequent head and neck cancer in an elderly population have been evaluated in a new study. Acute sinusitis is a common inflammatory condition of the sinuses often caused by viral or bacterial infections. The condition is considered chronic when the episode persists longer than 12 weeks.

Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (HNSCC), the most common head and neck cancer, includes cancers of the oral cavity (including the gums and tongue), pharynx, and larynx. In the US, more than 61,760 men and women are expected to be diagnosed with HNSCC in 2016. The 5-year survival rates are respectively 66% and 63% for individuals with cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx and for those with cancer of the larynx. For surviving patients, controlling the symptoms associated with HNSCC and with related therapy are important goals.

Scientists have discovered that esophageal cancer can be classified into three different subtypes, paving the way for testing targeted treatments tailored to patients' disease for the first time.

Levels of retinoic acid, a vitamin A metabolite, are low in mice and humans with colorectal cancer, according to new research. People with high levels of an enzyme that degrades retinoic acid have a poor prognosis, report researchers.

The most common oral complication and cause for reductions of quality of life (QOL) after head and neck radiation is salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia.

Some bacteria, called fusobacteria, commonly found in the mouth, use a sugar-binding protein to stick to developing colorectal polyps and cancers, according to a new study.

Scientists have shown that unexpectedly, esophageal cancer cells do not divide faster than their normal neighbors. But unlike normal cells, the tumor cells produce slightly more dividing daughter cells than non-dividing ones, forming a tumor. The study could lead to the development of new treatments for cancers that do not respond to current therapies which target fast-growing cells.

Patients depend on the Internet for health information, but when it comes to colorectal cancer, currently available resources are not meeting their needs.

Surgeons operating on patients with advanced thyroid cancer are often conflicted when deciding how many lymph nodes they should remove to reduce the patient’s risk of recurrence.

Genetically analyzing lesions in the food pipe could provide an early and accurate test for esophageal cancer, according to research. Barrett's Esophagus is a common condition that affects millions of people, although many are undiagnosed. This condition involves normal cells in the esophagus (food pipe) being replaced by an unusual cell type called Barrett's Esophagus, and is thought to be a consequence of chronic reflux (heartburn).

Pre-treatment or early intra-treatment prediction of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) who are likely to have tumours that are resistant to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) would enable treatment regimens to be changed at an early time point, or allow patients at risk of residual disease to be targeted for more intensive post-treatment investigation. Research into the potential advantages of using functional-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences before or during cancer treatments to predict treatment response has been ongoing for several years.

Dramatic increases have been seen over recent decades in the reported incidence of thyroid cancer, but owing to new modes of screening, hundreds of thousands of cases may be overdiagnoses — diagnosis of tumors that would not, if left alone, result in symptoms or death.

Recently, a large randomized trial found a survival advantage among patients who received elective neck dissection in conjunction with primary surgery for clinically node-negative oral cavity cancer compared with those receiving primary surgery alone. However, elective neck dissection comes with greater upfront cost and patient morbidity.

Current treatment options for patients (pts) with recurrent/metastatic (R/M) HNSCC who progress on platinum and cetuximab have very limited efficacy. Pembrolizumab, an anti–PD-1 antibody that blocks the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 and PD-L2, showed promising antitumor activity in R/M HNSCC in the KEYNOTE-012 trial.

Screening for colorectal cancer should start at age 50 and continue until age 75, according to the updated recommendation from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab, a PD-1 receptor inhibitor, for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who have experienced disease progression on or after platinum-containing therapy.

Among patients with head and neck cancer who have undergone neck dissection and are clinically node negative or node positive, those with at least 18 lymph nodes may have a significant advantage in overall survival, suggesting that lymph node count is a potential quality metric for neck dissection, according to a study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Researchers assessed the rates of laryngeal preservation and laryngectomy-free survival in patients with laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer who received the monoclonal antibody cetuximab and radiation therapy (CRT) or radiation therapy alone.

Methadone should be considered as a treatment of cancer pain with a neuropathic component for patients with head and neck cancer, according to a study published in the European Journal of Cancer.

Incidence of head and neck cancers - usually defined as malignancies above the collarbone but outside the brain - are on the rise, according to statistics from the American Cancer Society (ACS).

In experiments with mice, tumors with a common genetic mutation but limited access to glutamine stopped growing without the nutrient.

Previous research has indicated some correlation between active Medicaid insurance status and worse outcomes for cancer patients. A team of researchers sought to more closely examine the possible effects that being covered by Medicaid had on patients with head and neck cancer.

Researchers and physicians have grappled with the role of 'adjuvant,' or post-surgery, chemotherapy for patients with early-stage colon cancer, even for cancers considered high risk. Now researchers have found an association between the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage 2 colon cancer and improved survival -- regardless of a patient's age or risk, or even of the specific chemotherapy administered.

A role for Hedgehog (Hh) signalling in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been proposed. In CRC and other solid tumours, Hh ligands are upregulated; however, a specific Hh antagonist provided no benefit in a clinical trial.

Next-generation sequencing of recurrent or metastatic head and neck tumors at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) has provided insight into the molecular characteristics of these tumors, which may aid in the implementation of precision treatment. Morris et al reported these findings in JAMA Oncology.

eaturing Jared Weiss, MD, Joshua Bauml, MD, and Tanguy Seiwert, MD, this roundtable discussion, moderated by Dr. Weiss, highlights intriguing discussions regarding head and neck cancers from ASCO 2016. Drs. Weiss, Bauml and Seiwert discuss if there are less toxic alternatives to the existing ‘extreme’ regimen.

Up to 15 percent of colorectal cancers show a genetic mutation known as DNA mismatch repair deficiency, or dMMR. Until now, little has been known about how the mutation behaves in rectal cancer patients, what causes dMMR, and which treatments may be most effective.

A Norwegian population-based study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Simer J. Bains, MD, PhD, of the Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway, University of Oslo, and colleagues showed that use of aspirin after diagnosis of colorectal cancer was associated with improved colorectal cancer–specific survival.

Though the molecular principles of dysfunctional protein glycosylation and the way its enzymatic mechanism is known to cause tumors in such cancers as colorectal cancer (CRC) is not completely understood, the recent study “Biochemical and functional characterization of glycosylation-associated mutational patterns in colon cancer,” published in Scientific Reports, has identified mutational patterns of glycosylation-associated genes in colon cancer, and names three glycosyltransferases as relevant mutational targets.

The microscopic organisms that live in our gut do more than help us digest food. A new study in rats bolsters a growing body of evidence that the complex mix of microorganisms found in the gut, known as gut microbiota, could influence a person's likelihood of developing colon cancer.

A preliminary cell study finds combining curcumin, the active ingredient in spicy curry dishes, and silymarin, a component of milk thistle, inhibited the spread of colon cancer cells and increased cancer cell death.

The formation of large numbers of polyps in the colon has a high probability of developing into colon cancer, if left untreated. The large-scale appearance of polyps is often due to a hereditary cause; in this case the disease can occur in multiple family members. Now a team of researchers has discovered genetic changes in the MSH3 gene in patients and identified a new rare form of hereditary colon cancer.

More people are surviving cancer, but many are left with persistent pain after treatment. New guidelines from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recommend that doctors routinely screen for such pain.

Drinking plus being overweight may be a bad combo when it comes to risks for the two most common types of esophageal cancer, a new report warns.

A rare genetic mutation is associated with susceptibility to familial Barrett esophagus and esophageal cancer, according to a new study that set out to identify novel disease susceptibility variants in FBE in affected individuals from a large multigenerational family.

Featuring Jared Weiss, MD, Joshua Bauml, MD, and Tanguy Seiwert, MD, this roundtable discussion, moderated by Dr. Weiss, highlights intriguing discussions regarding head and neck cancers from ASCO 2016. Drs. Weiss, Bauml and Seiwert discuss common side effects of PD-1 inhibitors.

Researchers describe a repression mechanism active in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells for the first time. The repression complex of these cells silences genes related with cell proliferation and death, two key processes in cancer. The discovery contributes new knowledge on gene-silencing mechanisms and will help identify new targets for possible future treatments.

Scientists have identified a specific network of proteins present in mitochondria of tumor cells that is essential for maintaining a clean function of mitochondria, enabling not only the proliferation of tumor cells but also their ability to move and invade distant organs. By understanding the players involved, the scientists were able to turn off individual subunits within the network, which greatly reduced the ability of cancer cells to grow and spread, suggesting an attractive new therapeutic target.

Details of the first study by one of Europe's largest cancer centers assessing the clinical impact and feasibility of the ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale in a real-life context are now available to the public.

For the majority of patients with large or difficult to remove colorectal polyps (growths in the colon), the incidence of cancer is actually lower than previously thought, and using more advanced endoscopic techniques that spare the colon may be a better, safer alternative to a traditional operation in certain cases, according to study results.

A diagnosis of high cholesterol is associated with reduced mortality and improved survival in the four most common cancers, according to new research. The 14-year study from nearly one million patients found that a high cholesterol diagnosis was associated with lower risk of death in lung, breast, prostate and bowel cancers.

Routine colorectal cancer screening should continue to be performed among adults aged 50 to 75 years, according to an updated recommendation from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

Research has shown that patient-derived cancer cell lines harbor most of the same genetic changes found in patients' tumors, and could be used to learn how tumors are likely to respond to new drugs, increasing the success rate for developing new personalized cancer treatments.

Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with greater baseline liver tumor burden (?12%), who were treated with the combination of mFOLFOX6 and selective internal radiation therapy SIR-Spheres Y-90 resin treatment, experience a statistically significant greater depth of response than patients receiving chemotherapy alone.

Cancers linked to the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) keep rising in the United States, even though most cases are preventable, health officials reported.

Researchers assessed the rates of laryngeal (having to do with the larynx [voice box]) preservation and laryngectomy-free survival in patients receiving the monoclonal antibody cetuximab and radiation therapy (CRT) or radiation therapy alone.

Scientists report they have used a genetic test that spots bits of cancer-related DNA circulating in the blood to accurately predict the likelihood of the disease's return in some -- but not all -- of a small group of patients with early-stage colon cancer.

Cancers linked to the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) keep rising in the United States, even though most cases are preventable. Cervical cancer, and mouth and throat cancers in men, accounted for most of the nearly 39,000 HPV-associated cancers diagnosed annually from 2008 to 2012, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The addition of cetuximab to radiation therapy may improve larynx preservation and prolong laryngectomy-free survival for patients with hypopharyngeal or laryngeal cancer, according to a secondary analysis of a randomized phase 3 trial.

New consensus guidelines have been released for the management of metastatic colorectal cancer that reflect an increasingly personalized approach to treatment.

Researchers have clarified that T-lymphocytes expressing FOXP3 at a low level found in colorectal cancers (CRCs) facilitated cancer immunity. FOXP3 is a master gene of Regulatory T (Treg) cells that suppress various immune responses including cancer immuity. They found that a certain intestinal bacteria species was involved in the induction of such FOXP3-low T cells enhancing tumor immunity. These findings suggest new potentials in the treatment of CRCs via regulation of intestinal bacteria.

British medical charity MRC Technology has pocketed $150 million by selling part of its royalty interest in Merck & Co's successful cancer drug Keytruda, allowing it to plough fresh funds into new research.

In a sample study, researchers at Johns Hopkins say they have found an association between the makeup of an individual's microbiome and head and neck cancer, a finding that potentially advances the quest for faster and more accurate cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Potent doses of broccoli sprout extract activate a 'detoxification' gene and may help prevent cancer recurrence in survivors of head and neck cancer, according to a 'green chemoprevention' trial. It is the first study demonstrating that the extract protects against oral cancer, with the results of human, animal and laboratory tests reported today.

Following cancer prevention guidelines on diet and physical activity consistently reduced overall cancer incidence and mortality, as well as reducing risk of breast, endometrial, and colorectal cancers.

Review the Education Session, Integrating Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Targeted Agents with Surgery and Radiotherapy for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer, presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3-7 June 2016. Chair: David M. Brizel, MD

A landmark study has given the most detailed picture yet of the genetics of bowel cancer. The study examined all the genes from more than 1,000 people with bowel cancer and is the largest of its type ever conducted.

Estrogens are responsible for the survival and proliferation of tumor cells in 70 percent of breast cancer cases. Nearly a third of the patients develop a resistance to anti-estrogen treatments such as tamoxifen after a few years. Biologists now reveal how tumor cells become refractory to the drug. They succeeded in identifying eight factors involved in the process of resistance to the treatment. The researchers also suggest various approaches for developing new therapies.

Review the Multidisciplinary Treatment abstracts on Cancers of the Colon, Rectum, and Anus presented at the 2016 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium in San Francisco, CA, USA, from 21-23 January 2016.

Oxygen is important for the proper function of all human cells, but cancer cells thrive even when deprived of it. Now, researchers have identified a new signaling pathway that helps cancer cells cope with the lack of oxygen found inside tumors.

Review the Local-Regional Head and Neck Cancer abstracts presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3-7 June 2016.

Review the Poster Session for the Head and Neck Cancer Track presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3-7 June 2016.

Review the Extended Education Session, Global Oncology Session: HPV-Associated Malignancies, presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3-7 June 2016. Co-chairs: Peter George Harper, MD; Apar Kishor Ganti, MD

A new study has found new molecular sub-groups in early stages of bladder cancer. This improves the understanding of why some tumors develop aggressively and this discovery may lead to optimized treatment.

Review the Gastrointestinal (Colorectal) Cancer abstracts presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3-7 June 2016.

Review the Anal Cancer abstracts presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3-7 June 2016.

Review the Head and Neck Cancer abstracts on Biomarkers, Epidemiology, and Outcomes presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3-7 June 2016.

New breakthroughs presented at ASCO16 should give patients with head and neck cancers hope that better treatment options are on the horizon as immunotherapies may soon be more widely available. The need for new treatments is urgent: current standard-of-care chemotherapies have produced limited benefit in patients with advanced head and neck cancers, according to Robert L. Ferris, M.D., Ph.D., FACS, of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

Drinking piping hot coffee, tea and the caffeine-infused beverage yerba mate probably causes cancer, the World Health Organization has announced.

Review the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Screening abstracts on Cancers of the Colon, Rectum, and Anus presented at the 2016 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium in San Francisco, CA, USA, from 21-23 January 2016.

The June 15, 2016 webinar covered the topic of the ASCO 2016 recap with Dr. Emily Chan. Dr. Chan discusses the latest research and treatments for colorectal cancer patients presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting in Chicago in May of 2016.

Review the Advanced Disease Head and Neck Cancer abstracts presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3-7 June 2016.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer in UK (13% of all cancers) and the 2nd most common cause of cancer death (10% of total) (Cancer Research UK). The risk of recurrence and death from CRC is related to tumour stage at diagnosis. The growing repertoire of treatments available for CRC, including new chemotherapy approaches, combined with challenging benefit:toxicity ratios and cost, highlights the importance of targeting interventions to patients most likely to benefit. Whilst clinico-pathological staging can stratify prognostic groups, it is limited in the precision with which it categorise poor/good prognosis tumours and informs treatment decisions at the individual level.

Chronic consumption of excess ethanol increases the risk of colorectal cancer. The pathogenesis of ethanol-related colorectal cancer (ER-CRC) is thought to be partly mediated by gut microbes. Specifically, bacteria in the colon and rectum convert ethanol to acetaldehyde (AcH), which is carcinogenic. However, the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the human gut microbiome are poorly understood, and the role of gut microbes in the proposed AcH-mediated pathogenesis of ER-CRC remains to be elaborated.

Review the Education Session, Best of the Rest: Top Abstracts on Head and Neck Cancer from 2015-2016 Oncology Meetings, presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3-7 June 2016. Chair: Sue Sun Yom, MD, PhD

Review the Poster Discussion Session for the Head and Neck Cancer Track presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3-7 June 2016. Co-chairs: Nicole A. Shonka, MD; Kathryn A. Gold, MD

Review the Oral Abstract Session for Cancers of the Colon, Rectum, and Anus Track presented at the 2016 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium in San Francisco, CA, USA, from 21-23 January 2016. Co-chairs: Eunice Lee Kwak, MD, PhD; Daniel Tandel Chang, MD

In a French retrospective study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Tougeron et al found that the addition of adjuvant oxaliplatin to fluoropyrimidine treatment improved disease-free survival in patients with stage III deficient mismatch repair colon cancer.

It is well known that the drug ASA, also known internationally as Aspirin, has analgesic and fever-reducing properties. However, this drug may also increase the likelihood of surviving colon cancer.

A new technology suitable for practical clinical testing can detect KRAS gene mutations in lung and colorectal cancers and could thereby facilitate targeted therapies, according to a new report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.

Daily tooth brushing and annual dentist visits may reduce the risk of some head and neck cancers by a small margin, according to a recent, large study.

Review the Oral Abstract Session for the Head and Neck Cancer Track presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3-7 June 2016. Co-chairs: Hisham Mohamed Mehanna, MD, PhD; Robert I. Haddad, MD

In a meta-analysis of hundreds of clinical trials involving thousands of patients, researchers report that therapeutic approaches using precision medicine, which emphasizes the use of individual genetics to refine cancer treatment, showed improved response and longer periods of disease remission, even in phase I trials.

Treating head and neck cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease with the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab resulted in significant clinical responses in a fifth of the patients from a phase II clinical trial.

As excitement over immune checkpoint blockade has grown, efforts continue to expand beyond some of the original indications to understand how best to combine these therapies with other treatment modalities. During an Education Session on June 6, experts discussed the use of checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck cancer and, specifically, what approaches might be best for combining them with radiation and surgery.

A retrospective analysis of the CALGB/SWOG 80405 (Alliance) study reported that the location of the primary tumor matters in treatment outcomes of both overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), and that patients with primary tumors on the right side of the colon were at a significantly 55% higher risk for death compared with patients with primary tumor location on the left side.

Researchers have found that adding increasing doses of an approved Type 2 diabetes drug, metformin, to a chemotherapy and radiation treatment regimen in head and neck cancer patients is not well tolerated if escalated too quickly, but allowing slower escalation could be beneficial.

While increased screening continues to drive down overall colorectal cancer rates, the rate of colorectal cancer in patients under age 50 is increasing, and the disease is commonly more aggressive in these young patients.

Scientists have now been able to understand for the first time why many cancer cells adapt relatively quickly to the treatment with therapeutic antibodies in invasive forms of breast cancer. Instead of dying off, they are merely rendered inactive. The researchers have now developed an active substance that kills the cancer cells very effectively without harming healthy cells.

A team of researchers has identified an enzyme that separates DNA replication from repair. This discovery could be of tremendous significance in the treatment of tumors.

Scientists have found unique genetic alterations that could indicate whether expensive immune checkpoint inhibitors would be effective for a particular patient. Their study reports that genetic alterations affecting a part of the PD-L1 gene increases the production of the protein, allowing cancer cells to escape detection by the immune system.

The study of head and neck cancers in the clinic and in the laboratory has been radically transformed in recent years.

Scientists using cryo-EM have broken through a technological barrier in visualizing proteins with an approach that may have an impact on drug discovery and development. The scientists have also reported achieving another major milestone, by showing that the shapes of cancer target proteins too small to be considered within the reach of current cryo-EM capabilities can now be determined at high resolution.

Researchers have discovered a new way of triggering cell death, in a finding that could lead to drugs to treat cancer and autoimmune disease. The method directly activates Bak to trigger cell death, explain the authors.

Surrogate endpoints used to support the majority of new cancer drugs approved in the US often lack formal study, according to the authors of a new report. This analysis questions whether the US Food and Drug Administration is adhering to standards that demand that surrogates be 'reasonably likely to predict' or 'established' to be used to grant approvals.

Scientists have caught a cancer-causing mutation in the act. A new study shows how a gene mutation found in several human cancers, including leukemia, gliomas and melanoma, promotes the growth of aggressive tumors.

Researchers have identified a particular gene expression pattern in normal-appearing breast tissue around tumors that was linked to lower 10-year survival rates for women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

Stigma, isolation and medical complexity may keep head-and-neck cancer patients from getting all the care they need; however, recommendations aim to change that.

Loyola researchers have identified a tumor gene that may help to predict survival outcomes in patients with cancer of the mouth and tongue.

If the gene is expressed (turned on), patients are 4.6 times more likely to die at any given time, according to a study by researchers at Loyola Medicine and Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine.

Whole-exome sequencing of both colorectal adenomas (precancers often called polyps) and intestinal mucosa at risk for developing into adenomas from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has generated a comprehensive picture of the genomic alterations that characterize the evolution of normal mucosa to precancer.

The number of U.S. adults who are diagnosed with colorectal cancer before age 50 is on the rise, a new study finds.

Researchers analyzed information from more than 1 million colorectal cancer cases that were diagnosed from 2004 to 2013, using the U.S. National Cancer Data Base.

A new study shows the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to increase in individuals under 50 years old, despite the fact that the overall rate of the disease has been declining in recent years. Following examination of more than 1 million CRC patient records over 10 years, researchers suggested that health-care providers should be more vigilant about detecting symptoms in younger patients.

Overweight colorectal cancer patients were 55 percent less likely to die from their cancer than normal-weight patients who have the disease, according to a new study.

Female cancer patients of reproductive age could preserve their fertility during radiation and chemotherapy through treatments that target the DNA damage response in oocytes (the cells that develop into eggs), an approach that works in animal models, say researchers.Female cancer patients of reproductive age could preserve their fertility during radiation and chemotherapy through treatments that target the DNA damage response in oocytes (the cells that develop into eggs), an approach that works in animal models, say researchers.

While investigating a potential therapeutic target for the ERK1 and 2 pathway, a widely expressed signaling molecule known to drive cancer growth in one third of patients with colorectal cancer, researchers found that an alternative pathway immediately emerges when ERK1/2 is halted, thus allowing tumor cell proliferation to continue.

A new study shows for the first time how a jumping gene can trigger colorectal cancer. Scientists have known about "jumping genes" - pieces of DNA that can move from one part of the genome to another - since the 1940s.

High cholesterol levels and the use of cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins were both linked to a lower risk of colorectal cancer, but new research shows that a high cholesterol level is what's responsible for lowering cancer risk.

Scientists have discovered a new biomarker that could predict survival outcomes—and help establish the need for aggressive treatmentcfor a disease that is estimated to kill nearly 10,000 people in the United States in 2016.

In questioning the argument that screening is the dominant explanation for decreasing colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality, the example of gastric cancer may be salient: since 1930, without any screening effort, gastric-cancer incidence and mortality have decreased by almost 90%.

A type of psychotherapy might help cancer survivors deal with the long-term thinking problems some experience after chemotherapy, researchers say. It's estimated that about half of those who undergo chemotherapy for cancer develop what's often called "chemo brain."

A new type of cancer drug that wakes up the patient's own immune system to fight tumours could be a game changer for tackling aggressive head and neck cancers, say experts.

The demand for radiotherapy across all European countries will increase by an average of 16% between 2012 and 2025, with the highest expected increase being for prostate cancer cases (24%), according to a new study published in Radiotherapy and Oncology.

Experts have debuted their latest progress in precision prevention – an in-the-works method to predict risk of colorectal cancer that integrates genetic, lifestyle and environmental risk factors.

Researchers have long known that hepatitis C can raise the risk of liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. But according to new research, the virus may also heighten the risk of certain head and neck cancers, including cancers of the oral cavity and larynx.

When cells divide, the proper balance between the four DNA building blocks is required in order for the DNA to be copied without the introduction of potentially harmful mutations. Researchers have now shown a connection between levels of DNA building blocks – dNTPs – and colon cancer.

For some patients, it is worth risking the adverse effects of a regular aspirin dose in order to reduce the chance of cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer, says research published in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

A metabolic pathway that is up-regulated in some breast cancers promotes the disease's progression by activating a signaling protein called Arf6, according to a paper. The study suggests that statin-like drugs may be effective treatments for breast cancer patients whose tumors express high levels of Arf6 signaling proteins.

Scientists have successfully characterized the mutational landscapes of glycosylation-associated genes in colon cancer, identifying three glycosyltransferases as significant mutational targets in CRC.

Immunotherapy has arrived for the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer, says Tanguy Seiwert, MD.

Tissue samples from a Hungarian mummy have revealed that people in the early 17th and 18th centuries suffered from colon cancer, long before the modern plagues of obesity, physical inactivity and processed food were established as causes of the disease, according to new research.

Head and neck cancer patients may no longer have to undergo invasive post-treatment surgery to remove remaining cancer cells, as research shows that innovative scanning-led surveillance can help identify the need for, and guidance of, neck dissection.

The diagnosis came just five days after her 27th birthday.

“Everything was kind of a blur then,” she says, remembering how she went in for a colonoscopy after complaining of abdominal pain and bloating. She woke up with the doctor sitting on the edge of her bed explaining that they found a large mass and couldn’t even complete the screening procedure.

Regular low doses of aspirin for at least six years was associated with a modestly reduced overall risk for cancer, primarily due to a lower risk for gastrointestinal tract cancer, especially colorectal cancers, according to an article published online by JAMA Oncology.

UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers have discovered that a deficiency in a key protein that regulates immune system warning signals could be a new biomarker for colorectal cancer, the second largest cancer killer in the United States. They believe the marker could be used to gauge response to a potential new treatment for the disease.

Colorectal cancer, one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States, is not a commonly discussed disease. Often symptom-less in early stages, the cancer is more difficult to treat as it progresses, requiring chemotherapy in later stages. Researchers are working on a way to identify patients who would benefit from chemotherapy before the cancer progresses.

The International Collaboration on Oropharyngeal cancer Network for Staging (ICON-S) developed a TNM classification specific to human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer.

Researchers report that they have found markedly low levels of the protein NLRX1 in multiple laboratory models of colorectal cancer, and in samples of human tissue. Studies have shown that the protein is known to be involved in regulating immune system signals in order to prevent hyperactive inflammatory responses by the immune system, but now researchers believe their finding also points to a role for the protein in preventing colorectal cancer growth. Based on their findings, they believe they’ve identified a potential treatment for colorectal cancer with low NLRX1.

Throat cancer patients exposed to both human papillomavirus (HPV) and tobacco smoke demonstrate a pattern of mutations along several key cancer genes, according to research presented at the 2016 Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Cancer Symposium. These distinct molecular profiles of heavy and light smokers who develop HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) may inform decisions related to treatment intensity by establishing additional prognostic criteria for this subset of patients.

A study published online ahead of print in the journal Medical Care shows that over a recent 10-year period, the rate of metastatic colorectal cancer patients older than age 75 receiving three or more treatments increased from 2 percent to 53 percent. During this period, 1-year treatment cost increased 32 percent to reach an estimated $2.2 billion annually. However, median survival for these patients increased by only one month.

Almost 700,000 new cases of cancer linked to being overweight or obese could be diagnosed in the UK during the next 20 years, according to a new report from Cancer Research UK and the UK Health Forum. The report also predicts for the first time the alarming impact obesity will have on cancer in the UK based on current trends. If they continue almost three in four adults will be overweight or obese by 2035. Even more concerning is the prediction that more people will be obese than overweight by 2030.

A gene that is known to suppress the growth and spread of many types of cancer has the opposite effect in some forms of colorectal cancer, researchers have found. It is a finding that may lay the foundation for new colorectal cancer treatments.

1.6% of 325,000 otherwise low-risk healthy patients who had a colonoscopy in the year 2010 experienced a complication serious enough to send them to a hospital or emergency department within 7 days.

Head and neck cancer patients who receive chemotherapy prior to radiation therapy (induction chemotherapy or IC) rather than the standard treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiation (chemoradiation or CRT) show no survival benefit and are less likely to receive a full course of radiation, according to research from the University of Colorado Cancer Center presented at the 2016 Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Cancer Symposium. The study, which examined more than 8,000 patient records in the National Cancer Data Base, represents the largest comparative analysis of IC and CRT to date.

A panel of medical experts in Canada has advised against the use of colonoscopy as a routine colon cancer screen in people at low risk for the disease. The advisory, from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, says that low-risk, symptom-free adults aged 50 to 74 should instead be screened with a fecal occult blood test (a stool-based screen) every two years, or a procedure known as flexible sigmoidoscopy every 10 years.

Head and neck cancers that test positive for the human papilloma virus (HPV) are known to respond more favorably to radiation therapy than those that test HPV-negative, but an explanation for these differences has remained elusive.

Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) have discovered that a human cancer-causing gene, called DEK, can be detected in the plasma of head and neck cancer patients. DEK may help doctors understand how a person's immune system could be used to treat cancer or predict outcomes for patients.

Colon cancer rates are rising among men and women under 50, the age at which guidelines recommend screenings start, a new analysis shows. One in seven colon cancer patients is under 50. Younger patients are more likely to have advanced stage cancer, but they live slightly longer without a cancer recurrence because they are treated aggressively, the researchers reported.

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine have found that when human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 is detected in peoples' mouths, they are 22 times more likely than those without HPV-16 to develop a type of head and neck cancer. The study was published online in JAMA Oncology and was led by Ilir Agalliu, M.D., Sc.D., and Robert D. Burk, M.D.

Adding nuts to your diet is associated to a reduction in the risk of cancer. This is the main conclusion of multiple studies that have shown that eating 2 or 3 servings per week (57-84 g) of nuts is associated to a reduction in the risk of some types of cancer (breast, colon, pancreatic and lung cancer).

Mistrust toward breast cancer treatment and the health care system at large were expressed by African Americans who participated in Chicago focus groups, suggests new research led by an expert on the health of vulnerable populations at the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis.

Nearly 15 percent of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer were younger than 50, the age at which screening recommendations begin. The study by researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center also found that younger patients were more likely to have advanced disease.

Women who eat more high-fiber foods during adolescence and young adulthood-especially lots of fruits and vegetables-may have significantly lower breast cancer risk than those who eat less dietary fiber when young, according to a new large-scale study led by researchers at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The composition of the tumor microenvironment is associated with a patient's prognosis and can be therapeutically targeted. A link between the cellular composition and genomic features of the tumor and its response to immunotherapy is beginning to emerge. Analyzing the microenvironment of tumor molecular subgroups can be a useful approach to tailor immunotherapies. 

Scientists have revealed a biological connection between obesity and colorectal cancer, and they have identified an approved drug that might prevent the cancer from developing. The findings are published in Cancer Research.

Oral sex can spread viruses that can cause head and neck cancers, according to a new study. About 70% of all head and neck cancers come from human papillomavirus, or HPV, infection.

A joint study by University of Colorado Cancer Center and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center published in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology shows two distinct causes of HER2 activation in lung cancer: mutation of the gene and amplification of the gene. In patient samples of lung adenocarcinoma, 3 percent were found to have HER2 amplification and another 3 percent were found to have HER2 mutation. No samples were found to have both. These distinct causes of HER2 positivity imply the use of different targeted therapies to combat these related but possibly distinct diseases.

An analysis of more than 50,000 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) found that prolonged time to treatment initiation (TTI) was an independent predictor of worse mortality.  

Leaders of several cancer centers designated by the National Cancer Institute have united to support human papillomavirus vaccination. Among them is Cheryl Willman, MD, Director and CEO of the University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center. A team of human papillomavirus experts drafted a consensus statement that advises widespread use of HPV vaccines to prevent cancer.

Bowel cancer is more likely to be diagnosed at the earliest stage if it is picked up by screening, according to new figures released by Cancer Research UK and Public Health England's National Cancer Intelligence Network.

While there are a range of reports that different foods and food groups can increase or decrease your risk of cancer, these associations are very difficult to scientifically verify. However, there is research that has demonstrated a strong connection between environment, nutrition and cancer. Studies have shown that African and Asian women have a significantly lower incidence of breast cancer than those in western nations.

Tests for blood in the stool can consistently detect colon cancer when used on an annual basis, and they are effective even in the second, third and fourth years of screening, a new study says.

A study presented at a symposium recently shows how differences in colorectal cancer between younger and older patients may be distinguished genetically - a finding that could pave the way for better treatments for younger patients.

Every year, around 3,000 women in the UK are diagnosed with cervical cancer. Whilst rare, cervical cancer can be a life-changing and dangerous disease. Of the UK women eligible for cervical screening, almost 3.7 million are putting themselves at risk of life-threatening cervical cancer having not attended cervical screening in the last five years.

Phase I trial reports that pembrolizumab is active in nasopharyngeal cancer. Afatinib is effective as second-line treatment in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in a Phase II study.

A biomarker has been identified that predicts which stage II colon cancer patients may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy to prevent a disease recurrence.

The majority of colon cancer patients whose tumors have started to travel to nearby tissue but no further are cured by surgery alone. But in a minority of these stage 2 colon cancer cases, the cancer returns and the patients die. Now, researchers have found a genetic biomarker that appears to predict which stage 2 colon cancer patients might benefit from post-surgery chemotherapy to prevent relapse.

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It was estimated that there would be 3.45 million new cases of cancer and 1.75 million cancer related deaths in 2012 only in Europe. In that year, the most common cancer sites for male patients were prostate, lung and colorectum while for female patients this was breast, colorectum and lung. The highest overall mortality rates were observed for lung, colorectum, breast and stomach (1).
Incidence is changing due to infections and lifestyle. More efforts are needed to strengthen prevention strategies and to develop effective treatments.

A new report describes cancer among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs), and reports striking variation in the cancer burden within this population, reflecting vast differences in exposure to cancer risk factors.

If followed, new U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) breast cancer screening recommendations will result in thousands of unnecessary deaths each year and thousands more women enduring extensive and expensive treatment than if their cancer had been found early by an annual mammogram. To ensure access to mammography, Congress delayed for two years any changes to insurance coverage based on these recommendations, while breast cancer experts vet the recommendations and the process by which they were created. Women ages 40-and-older, and their families, should continue to impress upon lawmakers and their health care providers that they want fully insured access to annual mammograms.

Novel strategies are on the way for difficult-to-treat and advanced head and neck cancer, the most heterogeneous group of malignancies which are generally associated with poor survival, say researchers.

Our environment can have a major impact on how we develop, and it turns out it’s no different for cancer cells. In work published today in Neoplasia, a team of researchers led by Associate Professor Mikala Egeblad at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) found that two different mouse models of breast cancer progressed differently based on characteristics of the tumor microenvironment – the area of tissue in which the tumor is embedded.

A cancer diagnosis is costly, and new research suggests that it remains costly even after the disease has been treated.

In a society that has become increasingly suspicious of vaccines, it's not only parents who stand in the way of some children getting vaccinated for human papillomavirus (HPV). A new study published in Pediatrics shows not all pediatricians are recommending or even discussing the HPV virus for eleven- and twelve-year olds.

A study led by Professor Chng Wee Joo from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore has shown the efficacy of a small molecule drug, PRIMA-1met, in inhibiting the growth of colorectal cancer cells.

Aspirin may double the chances of survival for patients with gastrointestinal cancers, according to the results of a new study recently presented at the 2015 European Cancer Congress in Vienna, Austria.

A gene linked to bowel cancer recurrence and shortened survival could help predict outcomes for patients with the gene - and take scientists a step closer to development of personalized treatments, reveals research in the journal Gut.

Manchester researchers have identified a potential new way to predict which patients with head and neck cancer may benefit most from chemotherapy.

Novel strategies are on the way for difficult-to-treat and advanced head and neck cancer, the most heterogeneous group of malignancies which are generally associated with poor survival. Encouraging results have been presented at the first ESMO Asia 2015 Congress in Singapore.

Adding to growing evidence on the possible health risks of electronic cigarettes, a lab team at the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System tested two products and found they damaged cells in ways that could lead to cancer.

The report, compiled by a Working Group of 22 experts across 10 countries on behalf of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is published in The Lancet Oncology. Numerous studies have linked high consumption of red and processed meats with greater risk for colorectal cancer, or bowel cancer, with associations being so strong that they have influenced public health recommendations

This was the finding of a study published in the journal Oncogene and led by the University of Missouri School of Medicine in Columbia, which may spur new treatments for colorectal cancer. Senior author, Sharad Khare, an associate professor in the School's Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, says: "The gene known as Sprouty2 has previously been shown to protect against metastasis, or the spreading of cancer to other parts of the body, in breast, prostate and liver cancer."

Head and neck cancer patients may be at raised risk for suicide, new research suggests. However, the overall risk is still small, the findings showed. The study included over 350,000 patients in the United States diagnosed with head and neck cancer between 1973 and 2011. Of those patients, 857 died by suicide.

Currently, the fundamental treatments against cancer continue to be surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, which usually destroys the primary tumour, but whose action is very limited against metastasis. This is why it is necessary to continue investigating to find new prognostic markers and new therapeutic targets for metastasis before it occurs, as the early detection of these markers could determine which cases require treatment and avoid it in those patients without a risk of metastasis.

This study uses data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to examine the association between access to paid sick leave and job retention and personal financial burden among patients with colorectal cancer.

Patients suffer. Yet clinical care has moved away from addressing suffering. Suffering—“severe distress that threatens the integrity of the person”—spans physical, emotional, social, spiritual, existential, and financial domains, and as a whole-person problem it doesn’t fit neatly within current biomedical paradigms.

For years, there has been debate over how to screen first-degree relatives of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). All major U.S. guidelines advocate more aggressive screening for first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with CRC before age 60—on that point, they all agree. But when CRC is diagnosed in an older person, it is not clear how and when to screen their immediate family members. Now, two new studies that examined family history of CRC came to differing conclusions about the value of increased screening.

Recent results from a survey of some 7000 patient specimens from the Cancer Genome Atlas concluded that gene fusion events, resulting in oncogenic activation, were commonly observed among members of the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) family, with 23 gene fusions observed over a total of 9 different tumor types, including colorectal cancer.

Hypoxia is a common characteristic of solid tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can visualize tumor hypoxia in a noninvasive, 3-dimensional manner and can be used to acquire information longitudinally. Multiple 2-nitroimidazole based PET tracers are developed, validated and quantified in the search for the ideal hypoxia tracer and several tracers have shown to reliably represent tumor hypoxia.

Women initiating treatment with assisted reproduction technology (ART) have no greater short-term risk for developing cancer compared with the general population or other women treated with ART.

Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, and Pfizer today announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted avelumab*, an investigational fully human anti-PD-L1 IgG1 monoclonal antibody, Breakthrough Therapy designation for the treatment of patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) who have progressed after at least one previous chemotherapy regimen. Breakthrough Therapy designation is designed to accelerate the development and review of medicines that are intended to treat a serious condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the therapy may demonstrate a substantial improvement over current available therapies. MCC is a rare and aggressive type of skin cancer.1,2 Each year, there are approximately 1,500 new cases of MCC diagnosed in the US.3There is currently no therapy approved specifically for the treatment of metastatic MCC.

In the United States, it is estimated that approximately 230,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer, and more than 40,000 will die from the disease this year alone. Early detection using mammography remains the best way to prevent premature death from breast cancer. A panel of experts examined decades of research to update the American Cancer Society's (ACS) recommendations for breast cancer screening.

Confused about processed or red meat and cancer? If so, you could blame the reporting on that big story. Some journalists who covered a recent report by a World Health Organization agency about processed meat causing cancer and red meat probably causing cancer found that report confusing. So it's no surprise that, once their stories were published, more people became confused, and many wondered about the risks of eating meat.The report, by the WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer, looks at the evidence about whether processed meat and red meat cause cancer. It is not a report about risk.

Understanding the cancer patient’s prognosis in all illness phases is important. Evidence suggests that the “Surprise Question” (SQ) -- “Would you be surprised if this patient died within the next year?” -- may be useful in identifying those most at risk of death, but prior studies are limited by the relatively small number of patients and clinicians included.

Merck KGaA and Pfizer have begun phase III trials of their non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) candidate avelumab.

More than half of human colorectal cancers (CRCs) carry either KRAS or BRAF mutations, and are often refractory to approved targeted therapies. We report that cultured CRC cells harboring KRAS or BRAF mutations are selectively killed when exposed to high levels of vitamin C. This effect is due to increased uptake of the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbate (DHA), via the GLUT1 glucose transporter. Increased DHA uptake causes oxidative stress as intracellular DHA is reduced to vitamin C, depleting glutathione. Thus, ROS accumulates and inactivates glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Inhibiting GAPDH in highly glycolytic KRAS or BRAF mutant cells leads to an energetic crisis and cell death not seen in KRAS and BRAF wild-type cells. High-dose vitamin C impaired tumor growth in Apc/KrasG12D mutant mice. These results provide a mechanistic rationale for exploring the therapeutic use of vitamin C for CRCs with KRAS or BRAF mutations.

The latest analysis of EUROCARE data, Europe's largest population-based study on cancer survival, found a steady increase in five-year relative survival over time. However, dramatic differences in survival persist. The lowest rates were among older patients, and those who live in Eastern Europe.

Assessment of early tumor shrinkage (ETS) and depth of response (DpR) may be of greater value in treating patients with metastatic colorectal cancer than previously appreciated. While ETS has been investigated as an early predictor of treatment efficacy (ie, progression-free and overall survival), particularly in terms of classifying responders vs nonresponder, DpR has been viewed as a window into tumor response. Now, a new review considers available data in the context of their potential as predictive markers in metastatic colorectal cancer. Looking back at 10 clinical trials, Heinemann, et al found ETS valuable in differentiating patients with high sensitivity to treatment and more favorable prognosis from a heterogeneous group of patients classified as “non-ETS patients.” ETS is, therefore, an early indicator of potentially achievable response. They found that DpR can be valuable in estimating the nadir of tumor response as a continuous measure, which could ultimately translate into better survival. The authors concluded that the findings could be especially valuable in the clinical decision-making process and help optimize patient management in the era of tailored therapy approaches.

Citation: Heinemann V, Stintzing S, Modest DP, et al. Early tumour shrinkage (ETS) and depth of response (DpR) in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
Eur J Cancer. 2015;51(14):1927-1936.

It has been established that right- and left-sided colon cancers differ in biology, pathology, and epidemiology—and that the prognosis is worse for patients with right-sided tumors. Now a team of researchers has determined that while tumor location is not prognostic, it is strongly predictive of progression-free survival (PFS) with cetuximab therapy. In reanalyzing data from the NCIC CO.17 trial (cetuximab vs best supportive care), Brulé, et al coded the primary tumor side as RC (right side; caecum to transverse colon) or LC (left side; splenic flexure to rectosigmoid). Cox regression models determined factors affecting overall survival (OS) and PFS. Among wild-type KRAS patients, those with LC had significantly improved PFS when treated with cetuximab compared with best supportive care (median: 5.4 vs 1.8 months), whereas those with RC did not (median: 1.9 months vs 1.9 months).Tumor side was not prognostic for PFS in patients receiving best supportive care. Patients with RC had more poorly differentiated, mutant KRAS, mutated PIK3CA and wild-type BRAF tumors, fewer liver and lung metastases, and shorter interval between diagnosis and study entry. The authors advised that additional research is needed to understand the molecular differences between right- and left-sided cancers, and their interaction with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition.

Citation: Brulé SY, Jonker DJ, Karapetis CS, et al. Location of colon cancer (right-sided versus left-sided) as a prognostic factor and a predictor of benefit from cetuximab in NCIC CO.17. Eur J Cancer. 2015;51(11):1405-1414.

Among patients with cancer, young men being treated with drugs that may affect their fertility are much more likely to take part in discussions over fertility preservation arrangements than are young women, but uptake in both sexes remains low, concludes a US study published in Cancer. Better strategies are needed for dealing with reproductive issues among young patients with cancer, it says.

A new study has demonstrated that FOLFOX plus cetuximab significantly prolongs progression-free survival vs FOLFOX alone in metastatic colorectal cancer, provided there was no mutation in KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes. Conversely, a detrimental effect has been observed in patients whose tumors are mutated for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and/or PIK3CA genes.

Scientists report they've found DNA from head and neck cancer tumorsin patients' blood and saliva samples, a development that potentially could lead to early diagnosis of these malignancies.

Metastatic colorectal cancer patients tend to live longer when they respond to the first line of chemotherapy their doctors recommend. To better predict how patients will respond to chemotherapy drugs before they begin treatment, researchers conducted a proof-of-principle study with a small group of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. The results revealed two genes that could help physicians make more informed treatment decisions for patients with this disease.

When the T cells of your immune system are forced to deal over time with cancer or a chronic infection they become exhausted - less effective at attacking and destroying invaders. While the PD-1 protein pathway has long been implicated as a primary player in T cell exhaustion, a major question has been whether PD-1 actually directly causes exhaustion. A new paper seems to, at least partially, let PD-1 off the hook.

Journal Reference: P. M. Odorizzi, K. E. Pauken, M. A. Paley, A. Sharpe, E. J. Wherry. Genetic absence of PD-1 promotes accumulation of terminally differentiated exhausted CD8 T cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2015; DOI: 10.1084/jem.20142237

A new meta-analysis of data involving patients with head and neck squamocellular cancer (HNSCC) found a lower rate of early treatment-associated death in observational studies (0.8%) than in phase II and phase III randomized controlled trials or case series (2.7% for each).

There is mounting evidence that chronic inflammation is linked to increased risk of tumor development. A new study is helping to shed light on the important link between inflammation and cancer, and how pre-existing inflammation may aid in the metastatic process.

Journal Reference: S. Libreros, R. Garcia-Areas, P. Keating, N. Gazaniga, P. Robinson, A. Humbles, V. L. Iragavarapu-Charyulu. Allergen induced pulmonary inflammation enhances mammary tumor growth and metastasis: Role of CHI3L1. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 2015; 97 (5): 929 DOI: 10.1189/jlb.3A0214-114RR

The 12th annual Gastrointestinal (GI) Cancers Symposium was held January 15-17, 2015, in San Francisco. The Symposium brought together more than 3,400 attendees, including gastroenterologists, oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, pathologists, and other members of the cancer care community involved in the prevention, detection, and treatment of GI cancers. Attendees gathered to exchange ideas, best practices, and scientific research in GI oncology, with more than half of attendees hailing from outside of the United States and representing 70 countries. Reflecting the meeting’s theme of “Bridging Cancer Biology to Clinical GI Oncology,” this year’s sessions highlighted several timely studies from among the more than 830 abstracts submitted by researchers from around the globe. The 3-day Symposium featured a variety of session formats and devoted 1 day to each of the following multidisciplinary tracks: Cancers of the Esophagus and Stomach; Cancers of the Pancreas, Small Bowel, and Hepatobiliary Tract; and Cancers of the Colon, Rectum, and Anus.

Planned neck dissection (ND) is often performed before or after patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) undergo chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced nodal metastases. Using PET-CT to detect persistent disease could decrease the number of NDs and possibly lead to improved patient outcomes.

Between 5%-6% of patients with CRC have an underlying hereditary CRC syndrome. A recent ASCO endorsement focused on recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of these individuals. ASCO is creating broader guidelines regarding the use of a panel of biomarkers to guide treatment of CRC. Incidence of pancreatic cancer, a less common type of cancer than CRC, is rising. By 2030, pancreatic cancer is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related death, largely because screening and treatment lag behind more common malignancies, such as breast and prostate cancers. The ASCO Pancreatic Cancer Working Group aims to alter that dire predication by creating the first pancreatic cancer guidelines.

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common in women, and remains a “very deadly disease,” Dr. Eng, session chair, said during her introduction. Worldwide, there are 1.23 million cases, and 608,700 people die each year of the disease. In the United States, the incidence rate projected for 2015 is 136,700 cases and 49,700 deaths. Screening is still underutilized, she said.

The estimated annual incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) worldwide is 1.3 million, making it the third most common cancer in males and the second most common cancer in females.1 There is wide geographic, racial, and ethnic variation in incidence and patterns, with 55% of cases occurring in high-resource nations. Higher proportions of colon cancers than rectal cancers (RC) and increased onset after age 50 are characteristics of CRC in high-income countries.2 A recent analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data for 393,241 patients with CRC between 1975 and 2010 showed an overall decreasing trend in the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States.

Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death and is responsible for approximately 107,000 deaths every year.1Unfortunately, patients often present with advanced disease at diagnosis, and their prognosis remains poor despite improvements in treatment. Over the past few years, cancer immunotherapy has shown increasingly exciting results in melanoma, where it was first tested, as well as in breast, prostate, kidney, and lung cancers. For this reason, immunotherapy was selected as the 2013 breakthrough of the year by Science.There is increasing interest in developing immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of gastric cancer.

Obesity is associated with disabilities and several diseases, including high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, gallstones, diabetes, and cancer.The exact total of Mexico’s population varies between sources, but approximately 32.8% of Mexico’s population are obese, making it the country with the highest proportion of obese population in the world, followed by the United States with 31.8%.

The estimated annual incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) worldwide is 1.3 million, making it the third most common cancer in males and the second most common cancer in females. There is wide geographic, racial, and ethnic variation in incidence and patterns, with 55% of cases occurring in high-resource nations. Higher proportions of colon cancers than rectal cancers (RC) and increased onset after age 50 are characteristics of CRC in high-income countries. A recent analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data for 393,241 patients with CRC between 1975 and 2010 showed an overall decreasing trend in the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States. However, the incidence in younger adults showed an increasing trend with a striking rectal preponderance.

Findings from four clinical trials released today at the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s (ASCO) 51st Annual Meeting show a promising new role for immunotherapy in patients with a wide range of common, solid tumor cancers. The new study results demonstrate the effectiveness of immunotherapy drugs targeting the PD-1 protein in advanced liver, head and neck, lung, and colorectal cancers. Several of the studies also identified genomic markers that can be used to determine which patients stand to benefit most from these new therapies.

New data show that posttreatment surveillance has a positive effect on clinical outcomes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Compliance with PTS, income level, and proximity to follow-up locales, as well as cessation of tobacco use, all were shown to contribute to survival in patients who had completed both treatment and follow-up at an academic medical center.

Recent molecular classifications of colorectal cancer (CRC) based on global gene expression profiles have defined subtypes displaying resistance to therapy and poor prognosis. Upon evaluation of these classification systems, we discovered that their predictive power arises from genes expressed by stromal cells rather than epithelial tumor cells. Bioinformatic and immunohistochemical analyses identify stromal markers that associate robustly with disease relapse across the various classifications. Functional studies indicate that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) increase the frequency of tumor-initiating cells, an effect that is dramatically enhanced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling. Likewise, we find that all poor-prognosis CRC subtypes share a gene program induced by TGF-? in tumor stromal cells. Using patient-derived tumor organoids and xenografts, we show that the use of TGF-? signaling inhibitors to block the cross-talk between cancer cells and the microenvironment halts disease progression.

The Cancer Genome Atlas profiled 279 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) to provide a comprehensive landscape of somatic genomic alterations. Here we show that human-papillomavirus-associated tumours are dominated by helical domain mutations of the oncogene PIK3CA, novel alterations involving loss of TRAF3, and amplification of the cell cycle gene E2F1. Smoking-related HNSCCs demonstrate near universal loss-of-function TP53 mutations and CDKN2A inactivation with frequent copy number alterations including amplification of 3q26/28 and 11q13/22. A subgroup of oral cavity tumours with favourable clinical outcomes displayed infrequent copy number alterations in conjunction with activating mutations of HRAS or PIK3CA, coupled with inactivating mutations of CASP8, NOTCH1 and TP53. Other distinct subgroups contained loss-of-function alterations of the chromatin modifier NSD1, WNT pathway genes AJUBA and FAT1, and activation of oxidative stress factor NFE2L2, mainly in laryngeal tumours. Therapeutic candidate alterations were identified in most HNSCCs.

High plasma 25(OH)D level is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer with intense immune reaction, supporting a role of vitamin D in cancer immunoprevention through tumour–host interaction.

In a new study, researchers from the UK have discovered a novel gene that, when mutated, can drive development and progression of triple-negative breast cancer - an aggressive form of the disease that accounts for 10-20% of breast cancers.

The MIR proved useful for identifying disparities in cancer screening and treatment internationally. It has potential as an indicator of the long-term success of cancer surveillance programs and may be extended to other cancer types for these purposes.

Immunotherapy drugs are transofrming oncology as they have been seen to affect tumors in ways that are almost unlike antyhing seen with conventional treatments. Cancer immunotherapy comes in several forms. The drugs sparking the most interest are called checkpoint inhibitors. They work by releasing the natural brakes on the immune system, enabling its foot soldiers, called T cells, to attack tumors.

Active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer appears safe through 15 years of follow-up. Only 1.5% of men died from prostate cancer during follow-up, and the risk of dying from another cause was nearly 10 times greater than that for dying from prostate cancer (HR, 9.2). Extended (15-year) follow-up of a cohort of 993 men with low-risk prostate cancer who only underwent treatment if the disease showed signs of progression.

The investigational cytotoxic agent TH-302 extended progression-free survival and improved the tumor response rate in advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer. The primary efficacy endpoint, progression-free survival, was significantly prolonged with the addition of TH-302 (median, 5.6 months), compared with gemcitabine alone (median, 3.6 months). A 1-year, open-label, multicenter, phase II randomized clinical trial involving 214 adults treated at 45 U.S. medical centers.

New guidance from World Health Organization (WHO) aims to help countries better prevent and control cervical cancer. The disease is one of the world’s deadliest – but most easily preventable – forms of cancer for women, responsible for more than 270 000 deaths annually, 85% of which occur in developing countries. The new "Comprehensive cervical cancer control: a guide to essential practice" was launched at the World Cancer Leaders’ Summit in Melbourne, Australia on 3 December 2014.

Global analysis shows that cancer due to overweight and obesity is currently far more common in more developed countries (393 000 cases, 5.2% of all new cancer cases in these countries) than in less developed countries (88 000 cases, 1.5% of all new cancer cases in these countries).

An appropriate cutoff of age and the impact of age on colorectal cancer outcomes remain unclear and need to be explored, particularly in China.In total, 2460 colorectal cancer patients were studied retrospectively. All patients were divided into 6 groups according to their ages at the time of diagnosis: ?30, 31 to 35, 36 to 40, 41 to 45, 46 to 50, and ?50 years. A suitable cutoff age for defining young adult colorectal cancer was explored according to the distribution of survival in each group. Clinical characteristics and prognosis between the young adult group and the older group were then compared.According to the survival curves for each group, 35 years old was considered a suitable cutoff age for defining young adult colorectal cancer.

Immunotherapy is set to revolutionize the treatment of cancer, according to research. "We expect that the new possibilities of immunotherapy will substantially change the treatment of cancer," said one expert. "And this is not just in one disease, but across the board in many types of cancer."

In the next 15 years, more than one in 10 colon cancers and nearly one in four rectal cancers will be diagnosed in patients younger than the traditional screening age, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. This growing public health problem is underscored by data trends among 20- to 34-year-olds in the USA, among whom the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is expected to increase by 90% and 124.2%, respectively, by 2030.

A new breast cancer vaccine candidate, GP2, provides further evidence of the potential of immunotherapy in preventing disease recurrence. This is especially the case for high-risk patients when it is administered after completing trastuzumab treatment. These findings have been presented by researchers of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center at the 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology’s Breast Cancer Symposium in San Francisco, USA (4-6 September 2014).
Data from FIRST (Frontline Investigation of REVLIMID + Dexamethasone Versus Standard Thalidomide) (MM-020/IFM 07-01), an open-label phase III randomised study of continuous lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone in patients newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma, who are not candidates for stem cell transplantation, have been published in the September 4 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
The USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted on 4 September 2014 accelerated approval to pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for treatment of patients with advanced or unresectable melanoma who are no longer responding to other drugs.
Circulating tumour cell (CTC) clusters (2 to 50 tumour cells that break off a primary tumour and are carried through the circulation) appear to be much more likely to cause metastasis than are single CTC, according to a study from investigators at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center.
IntClust is a classification of breast cancer comprising ten subtypes based on molecular drivers identified through the integration of genomic and transcriptomic data from around 1,000 breast tumours and validated in a further 1,000.  The new research findings, published in the journal Genome Biology, indicate that IntClust subtypes are reproducible, show clinical validity and best capture variation in genomic drivers. IntClust is likely to become increasingly relevant as more targeted biological therapies become available.
A subset of patients with stage III colon cancer had improved survival rates when treated with adjuvant irinotecan-based therapy, according to a new study published in the journal Gastroenterology. The researchers found in particular that CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) might be associated with response to adjuvant irinotecan.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations found in the circulating-free tumour DNA (ctDNA) from the plasma of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients correlates well with the EGFR mutations from patient-matched tumour tissue DNA.
The USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved on 14 August 2014 a new use for bevacizumab (Avastin) to treat patients with persistent, recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer.
The USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved on 11 August 2014 Cologuard, the first stool-based colorectal screening test that detects the presence of haemoglobin and DNA mutations that may indicate the presence of colorectal cancer or its precursors. It is intended for patients who are typical candidates for colorectal cancer screening, adults 50 years or older who are at average risk for colorectal cancer.
Fibroadenomas are the most common breast tumours in women under 30. In latest research study, published in the Nature Genetics, scientists from the National Cancer Centre Singapore, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, and Singapore General Hospital have made a seminal breakthrough in understanding of the molecular basis of fibroadenoma.
 In a review article, published online 1 July 2014 in the Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, a group of researchers explore breakthroughs in understanding and the treatment of acquired resistance, focusing on EGFR mutant and ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC, which may be relevant across different oncogene-addicted solid malignancies.

Prostate cancer is considered a disease of older men, aged >65 years. Many prostate cancers are slow-growing and many older men diagnosed with early stage prostate cancer will end up dying from causes other than prostate cancer.

Highly selective and potent MEK inhibitors have been developed and assessed in numerous clinical studies. However, only hints of antitumour activity have been seen in tumours other than melanoma. In an article published in July 2014 issue of the Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, Drs Yujie Zhao and Alex Adjei of the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, USA review MEK1/2 signalling, activity of MEK inhibitors and common toxic effects.
 A group of clinicians from the Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias in Oviedo, Spain review in the Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology epidemiology of sinonasal tumours, clinical presentation, histology, tumorigenesis, genetic characterisation, models of sinonasal cancer, prognosis and advances in treatment.

Researchers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified amplifications in MET and ERBB2 as well as mutations of NF1 and RIT1 as driver events in oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas. This analysis increases the fraction of lung adenocarcinoma cases with somatic evidence of RTK/RAS/RAF pathway activation.

Surgical resection of hepatic metastasis markedly improves survival among melanoma patients, according to new study findings published in the July issue of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons. These results challenge a current dogma in melanoma, as it is most often considered fatal once it has spread to the liver with a 4- to 6-month median overall survival.

The USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved on 13 June 2014 a new indication for Lymphoseek (technetium 99m tilmanocept) Injection, a radioactive diagnostic imaging agent that helps in determining the extent of spread of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in head and neck region.

On 26 June 2014, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) adopted a positive opinion recommending a variation to the terms of the marketing authorisation for the medicinal product bevacizumab (Avastin).

Phase III trial in Asian patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) shows improvement in overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) when treated with regorafenib monotherapy.

On 26 June 2014, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) adopted a positive opinion recommending a variation to the terms of the marketing authorisation for the medicinal product regorafenib (Stivarga).

The new combination agent TAS-102 is able to improve overall survival compared to placebo in patients whose metastatic colorectal cancer is refractory to standard therapies, researchers said at the ESMO 16th World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer in Barcelona.

For patients with KRAS wild-type untreated colorectal cancer, adding cetuximab or bevacizumab to combination chemotherapy offers equivalent survival, researchers said at the ESMO 16th World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer in Barcelona.

Adding the novel MM-398 to standard treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer patients who have already received gemcitabine improves survival, researchers said at the ESMO 16th World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer in Barcelona.

Physical inactivity has been linked with diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, but it can also increase the risk of certain cancers, according to a study published June 16 in the JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

In women with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic breast cancer, treatment with trastuzumab is associated with prolonged survival but also increases the risk of developing heart problems, a new systematic review shows. However, the review, published inThe Cochrane Library, concludes that more women benefit from use of trastuzumab than are harmed.

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